School Social Context, Students’ Self-Efficacy and Satisfaction in High School

Maria Luisa Pedditzi1, *, Passarelli Marcello2
1 Department of Pedagogy, Psychology and Philosophy, University of Cagliari, via Is Mirrionis, Italy
2 Institute for Educational Technologies, National Research Council - CNR-ITD - Genoa, Italy

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Creative Commons License
© 2018 Maria Luisa Pedditzi

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pedagogy, Psychology and Philosophy, University of Cagliari, via Is Mirrionis, Italy, Tel: 390706757519; E-mail:



Several studies have focused on the relationship between context variables and self-efficacy. Among the social variables, limited attention has been given to social capital and teacher-student relationship in the school community.


This study aims to explore how social capital in the school community and teacher-student relationship may influence students’ self-efficacy and school satisfaction. Furthermore, is it suggested that these relations change according to school grade or transition point,i.e. first and final year of high school, and in relation to the student’s gender.


A total of number of 2,623 high school students in their first and final years filled in questionnaires in Italy. We used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test an ad hoc model that aimed to assess how the school context variables considered may influence students’ self-efficacy beliefs and school satisfaction.


Four different models were developed to categorise four different school grade sub-groups,i.e. first and final year students, and gender, i.e. boys and girls. The analyses of the results within the sub-samples reveal that social capital and teacher-student relationships influence students’ self-efficacy and school satisfaction differently.


The results remarked the importance of differentiating guidance counselling for students in relation to specific transition and gender. Further implications for relevant educational practice are discussed at the end of this article.

Keywords: School Self-efficacy, Student Satisfaction, Social Capital, Teacher-Student Relationship, High School, School Transitions.