Teacher Emotional Support Scale on Italian High School Students: A Contribution to the Validation

Luciano Romano1, *, Ilaria Buonomo1, Antonino Callea1, Caterina Fiorilli1, Katerina Schenke2
1 Department of Human Sciences, LUMSA University, Rome, Italy
2 Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

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© 2020 Romano et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Human Sciences, LUMSA University, P.zza delle Vaschette, 101, 00193, Rome, Italy; Tel: +393471661196; E-mail:



This study represents a contribution to the validity and reliability of the 15-item Teacher Emotional Support Scale in a sample of Italian high school students (N=501; 80.2% females; M=15.66; SD=1.52). Therefore, the present paper aimed to examine the factor structure and to investigate the reliability and validity of the scale. Students’ perception of teacher emotional support refers to the students’ perception of whether and to what extent the teacher shows caring and understanding behaviours, promotes students' growth and establishes personal relationships with them.

Materials and Methods:

Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor solution had the best fit to the data, assessing three different but related dimensions: Positive climate, Teacher sensitivity, and Regard for adolescent perspective. Furthermore, the reliability and convergent and discriminant validity can be considered adequate.


The Teacher Emotional Support Scale could be considered as a valid instrument to assess high school students’ perception of the emotional support received from their teachers. Practical implications have also been discussed.

Keywords: Emotional support, Teachers, High school, Students’ perceptions, Classroom climate, Teacher support.