Relationship Between Procrastination and Stress Responses

LiYang Zhang1, *, Chieko Kato2, Koichiro Aoki2, Yoshiomi Otsuka2
1 Graduate School of Information Sciences and Arts, Toyo University, Toyo, Japan
2 Faculty of Information Sciences and Arts, Toyo University, Toyo, Japan



Procrastination is a maladaptive behavior that leads to failure of tasks, leads to a decrease in self-esteem and negative emotions, and that behavior is a habit. If procrastination becomes a habit, it will have a negative impact on your body and mind. Previous studies have divided participants by gender, age, etc. and examined relationships between procrastination and stress. However, a general relationship between procrastination and stress has not been clarified. This study examined the relationship between procrastination and stress through a questionnaire survey.


This study also examined effects of passive or active procrastination on stress responses through a survey on active procrastination tendency. In addition, surveys were conducted on Japanese and Chinese people and their answers were analyzed and compared between them. Hypotheses in this study are as follows: there are relationships between the participants’ general procrastination tendency and stress responses (Hypothesis 1); participants with higher general procrastination tendency show higher stress responses than those with higher active procrastination tendency (Hypothesis 2). There are differences in relationships between procrastination tendencies and stress responses between Japanese and Chinese participants (Hypothesis 3). The results of the analysis were discussed based on differences in cultural and social backgrounds.


These results showed positive correlation between general procrastination and stress response in both Japanese and Chinese. Active procrastination was positively correlated with stress response in Japanese and negatively correlated in Chinese.


The results suggest that the relationship between procrastination and stress response is influenced by the subject's cultural background.

Keywords: Procrastination, Stress responses, Questionnaire, International comparison, Cultural background, Behavior.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2021
Volume: 14
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TOPSYJ-2020-70

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 12/4/2021
Collection year: 2021

© 2021 Zhang et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Information Sciences and Arts, Toyo University, Toyo, Japan; E-mail: