Parent to Baby Emotions: Parental Immediate Emotional Reactions towards Infant Crying

Ayako Hada1, 2, Masumi Imura3, Toshinori Kitamura1, 2, 4, 5, *
1 Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
2 Kitamura KOKORO Clinic Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan
3 Global Health Care and Midwifery Graduate School of Nursing, Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan
4 T. and F. Kitamura Foundation for Mental Health Research and Skill Advancement, Tokyo, Japan
5 Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

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© 2021 Hada et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Tel: +81357388371; E-mail: