Depression in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Outpatients: The Effect of Gender, Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Type of Treatment

Paraskevi Theofilou1, *
1 General Hospital of Thoracic Diseases SOTIRIA, Athens, Greece

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 244
Abstract HTML Views: 148
PDF Downloads: 133
ePub Downloads: 74
Total Views/Downloads: 599
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 149
Abstract HTML Views: 122
PDF Downloads: 115
ePub Downloads: 66
Total Views/Downloads: 452

Creative Commons License
© 2023 Paraskevi Theofilou

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the General Hospital of Thoracic Diseases SOTIRIA, Athens, Greece; E-mail:



Diabetes is a chronic illness that can occur in different periods of the person's life.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of depression levels with HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin values and gender, to determine the rate of depression in patients with type II diabetes in relation to the presence of co-morbidities and how depression is associated with the type of treatment (diet, insulin).The study involved 150 diabetic outpatients. A questionnaire consisting of two sections was used to collect the research data: (a) the Zung depression rating scale (ZDRS); and (b) the Questionnaire designed by researchers, which deals with demographic and somatometric data. In the evaluation of the association of depression with the value of glycosylated hemoglobin, the results did not show a statistically significant correlation between the two above-mentioned variables (r = 0.098, p = 0.258> 0.05).


Those on a diet had lower levels of depression (62.57) than those who did not follow a diet (77.50, p = 0.029 <0.05). Those with diabetic neuropathy experienced higher levels of depression (104.25) compared to those who did not suffer (66.81, p = 0.010 <0.05).


The presence of complications as well as the treatment seem to influence the depression variable.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Depression, Mental health, Outpatients, Gender, Somatometricdata, Hemoglobin.