Values of Professional Sphere in Youth Subcultures
Anna Sheveleva1, *
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2020
First Page: 27
Last Page: 39
Publisher Id: TOPSYJ-13-27
Article History:Received Date: 11/11/2019
Revision Received Date: 12/02/2020
Acceptance Date: 27/02/2020
Electronic publication date: 21/04/2020
Collection year: 2020
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Solving the problem of professional self-determination is an important task of social development in adolescence. All social functioning of the personality takes place in the context of culture, with subculture being one of its components.
Identification of peculiarities of ideas about professional values in different youth subcultures.
The respondents are young people belonging to the subcultures “rock” and “anime”, and those who do not belong to any subcultures, a total of 180 people. The techniques “Career Anchors” by E. Schein and “Terminal values questionnaire” by I.G. Senin were used. The methods of statistical processing are Spearman correlation analysis, Friedman criterion, Mann-Whitney criterion.
The differences of ideas about professional values in different subcultures and at the persons who do not refer themselves to any subcultures are revealed. The results describe the preferences of different career anchors and their consistency or inconsistency towards the terminal values of the professional sphere.
Taking into account the subcultural affiliation of young people with the psychological support of their professional self-determination can influence the effectiveness of work with youth.
Values serve as a guide in people's lives, determine their aims and aspirations. A value can be any object or phenomenon of vital importance to a personality or group. The value can be any material and ideal objects: ideas, activity, behavior, emotions, moral and ethical attitudes, material benefits, etc. Value orientations are the elements of the internal structure of the personality, formed and fixed by the life experience of the individual during the processes of socialization and social adaptation, distinguishing the significant (essential for this person) from the insignificant. Value orientations are the basis of criteria for assessing the surrounding reality by the individual or group, ranking the phenomena of reality by the degree of significance, setting life goals and choosing acceptable means to achieve them.
Values have a dual character. They are social and individual. The values of a particular person are formed under the influence of the social environment, the peculiarities of those social groups which it belongs to, at that the value system of each person contains its unique experience . The personal value systems are formed under the influence of the socialization factors at all levels and stages of development. The value system of each individual includes a certain set of values hierarchically correlated with each other.
Psychology has many classifications of values on different grounds, psychological and not. Analyzing the work of a number of authors (M. Rokeach, V.P. Tugarinov, O.G. Drobinsky, A.A. Kozlov, V.T. Lisovsky, Z.V. Sikevich, V.F. Serzhantov, J.A. Shercovin, Y. Hudacek, V. Momov, V.A. Yadov, M.I. Bobneva, E.B. Fantalova, F. Pataky, A.F. Lazursky and others), we can give the following grounds. According to the subject-bearer - values are individual, group and universal. According to the content (the sphere of public life in which they are identified) - economic, social, political, spiritual, legal, professional, family, etc. According to the way of values existence - material and spiritual. According to the duration of existence - transient (due to a specific historical time) and imperishable (significant at all times). In their meaning - the so-called utilitarian and fundamental values. According to the degree of realization - actual (cash) and desired (possible). According to the readiness of the subject for estimation of the situation and realization of behavior - values are activated and “dormant”, related to the central needs or “peripheral”. According to their tasks in the regulation of behavior - values-norms, values-ideals, values-means (M.I. Bobneva); values-goals and values-means (M. Rokeach) . It is important to note the classification of M. Rokeach , who distinguishes two classes of values: a) terminal values or values-goals - beliefs that some final goal of individual existence is worth striving for; b) instrumental values or values-means - beliefs that some image of action is preferable in all situations. Terminal values are more stable than instrumental ones, at that, they are characterized by less individual variation. Terminal values reflect a long-term life perspective, what a person values now and what he aspires to in the future, they determine the meaning of a person's life, indicate what is especially important, significant, valuable for him. Instrumental values are the standards when choosing a certain type of behavior or action.
Individual values are the most important component of the personality structure, they serve as regulators of behavior and are manifested in all areas of human activity.
Professional values are guidelines on the basis of which a person chooses, masters and performs his professional activity . Professional values can be considered in a narrow sense as reflecting the phenomena directly related to professional activity. And they can be understood in a broader sense as the realization of the content of the general system of values of the individual or group in the professional sphere. Values in the professional sphere are closely connected with the fact what for an individual will be an indicator of success in a career and an acceptable way to achieve this success . Professional value orientations have a decisive influence on both professional and personal self-determination of a person. They mediate all his activities. The formation of values at the stage of professional training leads to the choice of individual style of future professional activity .
Personal values affect our ability to find attractive certain professional tasks and perform them successfully. The better we understand what our values are in certain areas, the more effectively we can choose or organize our professional activity, revise or re-create the personal meaning of performing professional duties [7, 8]. And the more satisfaction we can get from work. Thus, our motivation to perform work will be the strongest when we perform tasks and functions consistent with our values. Edgar Schein  formulated the concept of career orientations, or career anchors, according to which every person has attitudes about what is important, significant, and valuable for him in a professional career. Career anchors, or career orientations are a system of dispositions of the personality, social attitudes, value orientations, interests, motives, needs and the like socially determined desires for activity as they manifest in a professional career. These orientations set the direction of personal career development and make the process of movement in this direction stable. Identification of career anchors in the process of psychological consultation helps people to reveal their real values and use them for making the best choices in the process of building and developing their own careers [10, 11].
Professional activity is perhaps the most important sphere for a modern adult in which he can develop and realize his abilities, achieve skill and recognition of others, acquire a particular social status, be in a community of people with similar interests, build his own identity, benefit society, ensure his material well-being. According to the degree of subjective significance, only the family sphere can be compared with the sphere of professional activity, sometimes entering into competition with it . The sphere of hobbies is rarely recognized as paramount, but it provides the subject with a field for the realization of many needs which are akin to those that are actualized in the profession. Among them, there is development and realization of abilities, knowledge, an increase of skill level, recognition of surrounding people, communication with people having similar interests, contribution to self-identity, in some cases - receiving material benefit and achievement of certain social status. No wonder the hobby is called a second vocation. At the same time, activity in the field of hobbies performs the most important tasks. Due to the voluntary participation of the subject and the accompanying positive emotions, there is emotional self-regulation, stress reduction, active transfer from one activity to another, there is a recreational effect. The presence of hobby is recognized as one of the measures of prevention of emotional burnout, as well as a means of compensation of difficulties in professional self-realization or choosing a profession that does not correspond to the personal character [13, 14]. Besides, in the framework of voluntary emotionally attractive activity, the realization of the social responsibility of citizens, for example, in the form of volunteering, is possible in their free time. Therefore, it is necessary to appreciate the potential of the sphere of hobbies for the psychological well-being of a person, as well as for his professional career.
The social functioning of the personality takes place in the context of culture, and the various components of culture have their own influence on it. A number of these components are presented to the individual as a given, the person comes to others more or less intentionally accepting or not accepting them. We can call the subculture an element of social culture, to which the person is attached to the result of awareness of his own individuality and the desire for self-realization among like-minded people.
A subculture is a part of the main culture identifying a group by certain characteristics . The phenomenon of subculture does not contradict the general culture developing within it as part of the whole, reflecting the dominant cultural models of a larger society. On the other hand, the subculture is specific in that it has a number of values, norms and customs different from the general culture, relatively isolating it.
When characterizing the features of subculture, the most often indication is precisely on values, norms, and customs. Along with them the style of life and thinking, stereotypes, features of behavior, interaction and relationships of subculture bearers, social roles and statuses, preferred sources of information, tastes, hobbies, ways of spending time, jargon, folklore, social institutions, manner of appearance, procedural knowledge (skills, ways of implementation, methods), etc. are noted [15-20].
Subcultures are classified on the basis of gender and age (children, youth, subculture of women, etc.), socio-professional (workers, intellectuals or by individual occupations - army, medical, criminal, etc.), territorial (urban, rural), leisure, religious, ethnic. According to social orientation, subcultures are divided on prosocial, asocial and antisocial .
As noted by L.N. Gridyaeva , each person belongs to some subculture, although most people's subcultures have neither a self-name nor a system of symbols denoting their boundaries. However, involvement in different subcultures is carried out in different ways. For example, according to the fact of belonging to a particular socio-demographic group (children, teenagers, women, rural residents, etc.) - with a minimum of awareness and choice of accepted as given norms. In other cases, a person deliberately joins a subculture, the characteristics of which are consistent with his beliefs, interests and personal content (professional, leisure, etc.). At that, the bearer can consciously identify himself with this subculture, designating himself as to its supporter.
According to A.K. Abramyan , the emergence of youth subcultures is associated with a number of objective reasons and is due to both the nature of culture and social interactions of modern society, and the fundamental change of place and role of youth. In the opinion of S.E. Korablev , the youth subculture has mostly entertainment-recreational and consumer character. The scientist notes that the range of assessments of youth subcultures by the older generation is often limited, on the one hand, by caution, on the other - by aggressive rejection. In the latter case, in the eyes of the generation of “fathers” youth directly or indirectly rejects the “traditional” worldview. However, S.E. Korablev believes that the subculture of youth has an ambiguous impact on its bearers. A significant proportion of protest, alienation, opposition, nihilism in reactions on the impact of the rules of the adult world, on the one hand, separates the youth from the general culture, on the other - contributes to the perception, understanding, and, finally, the acceptance of common values, norms, social roles, because truth is born in a dispute . The involvement of young people in different cultural contexts, especially in connection with the tasks of the development stage (choice of profession, professional training, participation in different aspects of student life) is associated with social and personal factors. As M.F. Durón-Ramos, F.I.G. Vázquez и L.P. Lagares  show, these factors include relationships with fellow students and teachers, emotional intelligence and the desire for happiness. M.I. Logvinova and T.I. Logvinova  emphasize the influence of student subculture on the personal and professional development of youth.
Thus, the functioning of the personality in the spheres of professional activity and hobbies is realized in the context of culture, including subculture. An individual can join subculture unintentionally or through conscious choice. In accordance with the tasks of the present study, the second case is more interesting for us. Value orientations, in this case, serve as a clue connecting the hobby and professional spheres of self-realization. This connection is multidirectional. On the one hand, the choice and mastering of the activity by an individual, both in the professional sphere and in the field of hobbies, methods of its implementation, goals, success indicators is based on the inherent value orientations. On the other hand, inclusion in a social group (professional or any other), interaction with it leads to the individual's assimilation of the values of this group. The profession as a social community has not yet had much influence associated with the formation of a professional system of values on the young people who are at the initial stages of their career - the stage of professional choice or professional training. At this time, the values formed through belonging to other significant social groups are actual. If an individual identifies himself with a subculture, this can be considered as an indicator of the significance of this social community for him. In this case, the values of the subculture will be common for its adherents. These values can be one of the reasons for career choices and decisions. The existence of a variety of youth subcultures implies the presence of a specific system of values within each of them. Such value systems do not necessarily negate, but in any case, clarify and hierarchize the values of a common culture in their own way. This study reveals the value specificity of subcultural affiliation or its absence, which is manifested in the values of the professional sphere.
The goal of this study is to identify the features of ideas about professional values in different youth subcultures. The object of the study were young people of both sexes belonging to different subcultures (“rock” and “anime”), as well as those who did not belong to any subculture. The subject of the study was the peculiarities of expression of different value orientations in the sphere of professional activity and career depending on the belonging of the respondents to subcultures. We put forward as a hypothesis, the assumption that ideas about professional values differ in different youth subcultures and differ from those of persons who do not belong to any subcultures.
The sample consisted of students in the age from 17 to 20 years. The sample included three subgroups. 1st and 2nd are respondents identifying themselves with different subcultures. “Anime” - 60 people (27 male and 33 female) who are fond of watching and studying Japanese animated films in the genre of anime or manga, “rock” - 60 people (31 male and 29 female) who are fond of rock music as performers and listeners). 3rd subgroup is respondents who do not relate themselves to any subculture (control sample, or non-subculture - 60 people, (30 male and 30 female).
The respondents of the “anime” and “rock” subgroups were chosen using thematic communities in social networks dedicated to these subcultures. From those who agreed to participate in the study, the representatives of young students were selected for further psychological diagnostics - students of colleges and universities, students of high schools, unmarried, who identified themselves with the subcultures “anime” and “rock”. The control sample was formed from young people of the same age range as the sample of subcultures that are not married, who study in high schools, colleges and universities, who use social networks, who are not members of communities dedicated to the “anime” and “rock” subcultures, and who answered negatively to the question of belonging to a youth subculture.
For getting empirical data, the following psychodiagnostic techniques were used: «Career Anchors» by E. Schein and «Terminal values questionnaire» by I.G. Senin. Statistical reliability of the results was ensured by the use of nonparametric statistics methods. The Kruskall-Wallis criterion was used to compare the indicators of three independent samples, Spearman correlation coefficient - to identify relationships between variables, Friedman two-factor dispersion analysis - to reveal the differences in indicators within one sample. The statistical analysis of empirical data was performed using the program SPSS Statistics.
The indicators analyzed in the study correspond to the scales of applied psychodiagnostic techniques. The characteristics of these indicators are presented below.
- Value orientations in the sphere of professional activity were identified with the help of «Terminal values questionnaire» by I.G. Senin, allowing to assess the degree of significance of eight terminal values for the respondent. The technique also gives the possibility to reveal the attractiveness of the realization of each of these values in different spheres of life (professional activity, education and training, family life, social life, hobbies). In addition, the technique allows to estimate the degree of preference for each of the life sphere. Based on the objectives of the study, we paid special attention to how the respondents assess the importance of the realization of each of the terminal values in the field of professional activity. The indicators corresponding to the significance of realization in the professional sphere of the following terminal values were studied:
Own prestige - gaining recognition in society by following certain social requirements;
High financial position - material well-being as the main meaning of existence;
Creativity - realization of creative abilities, the desire to change the surrounding reality;
Active social contacts - establishing favorable relationships in various areas of social interaction, expanding interpersonal relationships and realizing social role;
Self-development - knowledge of individual characteristics, continuous development of abilities and other personal characteristics;
Achievements - setting and decision of specific life tasks as the main life factors;
Spiritual satisfaction - management of moral principles, the predominance of spiritual needs over material ones;
Preserving one's own individuality - the prevalence of one's own opinions, views, and beliefs over the generally accepted ones, and protection of one's own uniqueness and independence.
We also studied the preference for different spheres of life indicators (see above).
Career orientations or career anchors describe the system of dispositions of the personality, social attitudes, value orientations, interests, motives, needs and the like socially determined motivs for activity as they manifest in the professional career . They were revealed by means of the questionnaire “Career Anchors” by E.Shein. The indicators corresponding to the following “anchors” were studied: functional competence, general managerial competence, autonomy (independence), stability, service, pure challenge, lifestyle, entrepreneurial creativity.
3.1. Subculture “Anime”
In this sample, statistically significant differences in the degree of expression of preferences of different career anchors by the respondents were found (the results of the analysis according to the Friedman criterion, (Fig. 1). The career anchor Lifestyle dominates, the anchor General managerial competence is rejected.
It should be noted that no statistically significant results were obtained by the degree of preference of terminal values in the sphere of professional activity. So it is possible to conclude that on this parameter, the sample “anime” is heterogeneous.
Correlation interrelations of indicators of career orientations with indicators of terminal values in the sphere of professional activity were revealed (Fig. 2).
Thus, the leading career anchor in the sample Lifestyles is directly connected with the terminal value Preserving one's own individuality and is inversely connected with the value of Achievements. The rejected anchor General managerial competence is inversely related to the values of Creativity and Spiritual satisfaction. Orientation on the anchor Service is associated with the significant increase of the value Achievements and rejection of the value Own prestige. Career anchor Functional competence is directly interconnected with value Achievements. The career orientation on Autonomy is associated with an increase in the value of Preserving one's own individuality and a decrease in the value of High financial position.
3.2. Subculture “Rock”
In this sample, statistically significant differences in the degree of expression of preferences of different career anchors by the respondents were found (the results of the analysis according to the Friedman criterion, (Fig. 3). The career anchor Lifestyle dominates, the anchor Functional competence is rejected.
No statistically significant results were obtained by the degree of preference of terminal values in the sphere of professional activity. So it is possible to make a conclusion that on this parameter the sample “Rock” is heterogeneous.
Correlation interrelations of indicators of career orientations with indicators of terminal values in the sphere of professional activity were found (Fig. 4).
The career anchor Functional competence which at the sample level was rejected has the greatest number of correlations. The more it is expressed, the more significant is the value of Preserving one's own individuality, and the less is the value Active social contacts and Achievements.
The anchor Lifestyles prevailing at the sample level did not give significant correlations, from which we can assume that this career orientation has different value content at different respondents.
Career anchor Stability is directly interconnected with the values High financial position and Active social contacts. The rest of the career anchors found negative correlations with indicators of terminal values, probably due to the fact that the respondents of the sample “Rock” find them contradictory. The anchor Autonomy and the value Self-development, anchor Pure challenge and the value Active social contacts, anchor Entrepreneurial creativity and the value Achievements are inversely interconnected.
3.3. The Sample of Respondents Not Referring Themselves To Any Subcultures (“non-subculture”)
From all the samples studied by us, this sample is the least homogeneous in the degree of preference of the values in the sphere of professional activity and career anchors. This conclusion is made by us on the basis of the absence of statistically significant results in the analysis of the expressiveness of the above-pointed indicators according to the Friedman criterion.
Nevertheless, correlation interrelations between career anchors and indicators of terminal values in the sphere of professional activity were revealed (Fig. 5).
Career anchors Functional competence and Stability are directly related to the value of Spiritual satisfaction. And career anchors Pure challenge and Lifestyles are directly interconnected with the value Preserving one's own individuality.
3.4. Differences Between Subculture and Non-subculture Samples
Statistically significant differences of indicators were found while comparing the three samples involved in the study (Fig. 6).
|Fig. (1). Differences in the degree of expression of preferences of career orientations. The results of the analysis according to the Friedman criterion, average ranks at the level of significance 0.001, χ2=26.056, df=7. Subculture “Anime”.|
|Fig. (2). Correlation relationships of the studied indicators. (Spearman correlation coefficient; ** - level of significance <0.01, * - level of significance <0.05). Subculture “Anime”.|
|Fig. (3). Differences in the degree of expression of preferences of career orientations. The results of the analysis according to the Friedman criterion, average ranks at the level of significance 0.001, χ2=25.913, df=7. Subculture “Rock”.|
|Fig. (4). Correlation relationships of the studied indicators. (Spearman correlation coefficient; ** - level of significance <0.01, * - level of significance <0.05). Subculture “Rock”.|
|Fig. (5). Correlation relationships of the studied indicators in the “non-subculture” sample. (Spearman correlation coefficient; ** - level of significance <0.01, * - level of significance <0.05).|
|Fig. (6). Significant differences in the expressiveness of the studied indicators between samples. (Data of the analysis according to Kruskall-Wallis criterion, average ranks at the level of significance ≤0.07).|
Thus, the sample “Anime” has the highest values for the preference of the leisure life sphere. In the sample “Rock” the anchors General managerial competence, Pure challenge, Lifestyles, values Active social contacts have the highest rates of career. The control sample of respondents (“non-subculture”) has the highest indicators of career anchor Service, values High financial position, life spheres of professional activity, family life, training and education.
The hypothesis about the difference of ideas about professional values in different youth subcultures and in people who do not belong to any subcultures is confirmed by the obtained results. The results describe the preferences of different career anchors and their consistency or inconsistency in relation to the studied terminal values of the professional sphere. Consistency in work is understood as an opportunity to realize this value of the professional sphere in a career. Inconsistency refers to a situation where the realization of value becomes an obstacle to the desired direction of career development or when the content of a career prevents the realization of a value.
As an indicator of the consistency of professional sphere values and career anchors, the presence of significant positive correlation relationships between them is considered. The presence of negative correlations between them is an indicator of inconsistency. Awareness of the contradictions between the ways of career development and values means awareness of the obstacles possible in the realization of the planned career path. Awareness of obstacles can serve as both a deterring factor to career development and a means of increasing the effectiveness of career advancement, because it allows us to prepare for possible difficulties and failures and to identify ways for their prevention and overcoming or reserved variants of career choices .
In general, the results show that young people, both identifying and not identifying themselves with subcultures, associate value orientations of different nature with a professional career - material, spiritual, social, communicative, creative. Similar results obtained on a sample of young workers are described in the work of N.L. Shlykova and M.V. Opokin .
4.1. Subculture Representatives
On the basis of the fact that in both samples belonging to subcultures, the career anchor of Lifestyles dominates, we conclude that it is important for the respondents from these samples to harmonize their professional career with other life spheres, tasks, social roles. At the same time only in the sample “Anime” this career orientation is statistically interrelated with the values indicators, which shows that the respondents are aware of the pros and cons of this type of career.
In the sample “Anime” other interrelations of professional sphere values with career anchors were revealed, indicating both their consistency and inconsistency. In particular, the value Preserving one's own individuality is consistent with career anchors Lifestyle and Autonomy. That is, the respondents from the sample “Anime” consider that it is possible to realize their own beliefs and opinions independent from the influence of mass trends, to show their own uniqueness in a career to the greatest extent while observing a number of conditions. This attention is given not only to professional but also to other spheres of life, where the profession does not compete with other life spheres (family, hobbies, etc.), but combines harmoniously with them. And also freedom to do in career what you want, and as you want, independence from organizational rules, restrictions, imposed ways of actions. At the same time, the career anchor Autonomy is negatively associated with the value High financial position. Probably, for the respondents of this sample, a career assuming freedom in decision-making and independence from the organization is not a prerequisite for a high level of material welfare.
The value of Achievements in the “Anime” sample is consistent with career anchors Service and Functional competence - a career assuming helping people and improving skills in the chosen profession, allows them to achieve socially valued objective results and be successful in achieving set goals. At the same time, the value Achievements is in contradiction with the career anchor Lifestyles. Probably, in the vision of the respondents socially set and planned objective results at different stages of the career path are not consistent with the career choices based on their own beliefs. These choices reflect their personal identity and together with professional activities include self-realization in other spheres of life without the dominance of any of them. In comparison with other samples, the lowest significance of the value of High financial position is combined with the above mentioned regarding the sample “Anime”.
So the terminal value of Achievements has the greatest number of correlations, which indicates its importance in the ideas about the career of the respondents from the “Anime” sample. This value can be both consistent and inconsistent with career orientations.
A number of values have also found contradictions with career anchors. Thus, the higher the significance of the values Creativity and Spiritual satisfaction, the less expressed is the rejection in the sample of “Anime” career anchoring General managerial competence. Hence the respondents consider that it is unlikely to be possible to realize their creative abilities and spiritual needs in a career based on management and organizational activities.
We believe that the understanding by “Anime” subculture adherents of the career as a field for the implementation of moral principles, idealistic values and creative potential of the personality reduces the readiness to manage other people. Actually, management functions do not contradict the realization of spiritual values or creative potential of both the individual and the organization, and in some cases, contribute to them. That is why we can connect the contradiction revealed in the “Anime” sample with insufficient professional experience and awareness of young people about the content and goals of management activity.
In connection with the growing attention of researchers to the realization of spiritual needs through professional activities, we refer to the research of R. Anvari et al. . In this study, spirituality in professional activity is associated with awareness of the meaning and goal of the work, awareness of your work as significant, with the coincidence of the purposes and values of the organization and employees. The result of having spirituality will be better performance of employees' professional duties, better relationships in the team, commitment to the organization, and reduced staff turnover. At the same time, according to the concept of I.G. Senin, the author of the questionnaire we used for empirical research of terminal values, spiritual satisfaction implies the desire for moral satisfaction, idealism, the predominance of spiritual needs over material ones, the guidance of moral principles and compliance with ethical standards. In general, this understanding does not negate the above-mentioned statement, but clarifies it.
In turn, the value Own prestige contradicts the anchor Service - a career that realizes humanistic values and works for the benefit of humanity does not lead to the satisfaction of ambition and the desire for social status. Career anchor Service in this sample is less expressed than in other samples.
In the “Anime” sample, the values Active social contacts and High financial position have the lowest values, and the sphere Hobbies - the highest values in comparison with other samples. Thus, the respondents of the “Anime” sample do not seek intensive social interaction and obtain high material remuneration in professional activity, furthermore, giving an important role to self-realization within the hobby.
It can be noted that the described results characterize the respondents of the “Anime” sample as people who prone to harmonize their careers with their own individual characteristics, aspirations and hobbies, with different spheres of life. And those who are not inclined to management activity, intensive social activity and achievement of indicators of status and success traditionally valued in society. Correlating these results with the results obtained by V.A. Mansurov and O.V. Yurchenko , we consider that the conclusion of these researchers about the orientation of modern youth on social prestige and profitability as the main criteria for career choices cannot be extended to the whole population.
The career anchor Lifestyle dominates in the “Rock” sample, which, as in the “Anime” sample, indicates the importance of career harmony with other spheres of life, tasks, social roles. Compared to other samples, this anchor is also expressed most strongly. However, the absence of correlations of this career anchor with values indicators suggests that its value content differs from one respondent to another.
The driving forces of a career in the “Rock” sample in comparison with others are predominantly the desire to solve complex professional tasks (anchor Pure challenge) and to manage and coordinate the actions of other people (anchor General managerial competence) besides the anchor Lifestyle. The career of the respondents of the sample “Rock” is least of all aimed at helping people (anchor Service).
Interrelations of values of the professional sphere with career anchors speaking about their consistency are found. Thus, the value Active social contacts, which in the “Rock” sample is more significant than in others, is consistent with the career anchor Stability. The value High financial position is consistent with this same anchor. That is, building favorable relationships with people and material well-being are interconnected with the presence of a permanent job in an organization with a stable income, social security, predictable labor tasks.
The value Preserving one's own individuality is consistent with the career anchor General managerial competence. Thus, the manifestation of its uniqueness in work is possible through the achievement of skill.
A number of professional values are in contradiction with career anchors. Probably, the respondents are aware of the threat to these terminal values in the process of realization of particular career orientation. The value Active social contacts is in contradiction with a career that implements anchors Pure challenge and General managerial competence. Perhaps, competition in the content of these anchors prevents, according to the respondents of the sample “Rock”, the construction of favorable interpersonal contacts and relationships.
The terminal value Active social contacts has the largest number of correlations, which indicates its importance in the ideas about the career of the respondents in the sample “Rock”. This value can be both consistent and inconsistent with career orientations.
The value Achievements contradicts the career anchors General managerial competence and Entrepreneurial creativity. The development of own business and focus on improving skills are likely to prevent the achievement of planned goals at certain stages of life. It can also be noted that the anchor General managerial competence in the sample “Rock” is less expressed than in other samples and is rejected. However, it has the greatest value fullness. Perhaps this is due to the awareness by the respondents of both positive and negative impacts of the corresponding type of career on the implementation of a number of values of the professional sphere.
The value Self-development is in contradiction with the career anchor Autonomy. Thus, the aspiration for self-knowledge and self-improvement is not consistent with a career that is free from organizational rules and restrictions and involves independent decision-making about what to do and how to do it. Perhaps, in this way, the respondents are aware of the necessity to allocate resources between personal development tasks and career tasks.
In comparison with other samples, the “Rock” sample has the least significant areas of professional activity, education and family life. At the same time, the importance of the sphere of hobbies is only slightly lower than in the sample of “Anime”. Thus, it can be noted that the respondents of this sample value their hobbies, aspire to combine different spheres of life harmoniously in the career, they are socially active and oriented for positive interaction with people. In a career, they are ready to solve difficult professional tasks and fulfill administrative functions. Furthermore, they do not tend to deepen into the details of the profession and reach a high level of skill.
Explaining the obtained results, we suppose that a number of respondents from the “Rock” sample associate their career prospects with rock music and plan to bring their musical hobbies from the amateur to the professional level. An example of this is the experience of a number of famous rock artists. Therefore, formal getting of professional education and related professional activity do not have a personal significance comparable to that of rock music for such respondents.
In general, the respondents of samples referring to subcultures are aware of both the support and obstacles to the realization of different values that are possible in the development of a career of one type or another. We consider it a prerequisite for more balanced career choices. Also, the respondents who refer themselves to subcultures pay great attention to the sphere of hobbies, which, in our opinion, serves as a means of preserving personal well-being and a means of preventing emotional burnout. Finally, the effectiveness and motivation to solve tasks related to social obligations (professional and family) are due to the possibility of restoring resources during leisure activities. As confirmation, we can point to the results obtained by L.W. Aarsen and L. Crimi  on the student sample.
The differences found between the results of representatives of different subcultures confirm the idea about the specificity of the value system in each subculture.
4.2. Non-subculture Representatives
In the sample of respondents who do not belong to any subcultures no general trend in the preference for career anchors was revealed at a statistically significant level. Correlations between indicators of terminal values and career anchors were found less than in samples of subcultures. This result indicates a greater heterogeneity of this sample than the sample of subcultures.
At the same time, there were only positive correlations found, which we consider as an indicator of the consistency of career anchors and values – an idea about the opportunities that can be realized in a certain type of career. Thus, the prerequisite for the realization of the value of Spiritual satisfaction is a career with anchors Stability and Functional competence. That is according to the opinion of people who do not refer themselves to any subcultures, the satisfaction of moral principles and spiritual needs can be obtained from the realization of a career in the traditional sense. Traditional career is stable employment in one company, constancy and predictability of professional tasks, guaranteed salary and social security, progressive job growth due to the increasing level of experience, qualification and professional competence. Traditional professional career has long been considered the best and most desirable in Western culture. Only for a few decades, other types of career have become popular among young people along with it -”Protean” and “Boundariless”, the movement in which is more due to the needs and efforts of the individual rather than the functioning of the organization. Nevertheless, the value of a traditional career in society is still high and associated with life and professional success. Indicators of success can be quite objective – salary, status in the organizational hierarchy, qualification of the employee, organization's position in the labour market and in the industry. The attraction to the traditional career of the respondents of the control sample is confirmed by a high significance of the value of high financial position compared with the samples of subcultures.
The value of Preserving one's own individuality among respondents not belonging to any subcultures is realized through career anchors Pure challenge and Lifestyle. Thus, the manifestation of personal uniqueness in professional activity is associated with the ability to solve difficult and non-standard professional tasks and with linking work with other spheres of life, tasks and roles. However, compared to subculture samples, the control sample showed the least preference for career anchors Pure challenge and Lifestyle. It is indirectly confirmed by the attraction of the respondents who do not refer themselves to any subcultures to a traditional career (with stable, predictable, standard work tasks) and to the separation of work from other spheres of life. The highest significance of the value High financial position in the control sample compared with the samples of subcultures representatives also confirms this conclusion.
In comparison with samples of subcultures representatives, the respondents from the control sample are mostly focused on a career with an anchor of Service, related to helping people and society as a whole, the realization of humanistic values. The prevalence of orientation for this career anchor among modern Russian youth along with orientation for the anchors Lifestyles and Stability is noted in a number of psychological studies conducted on samples of respondents of different sexes, different specialties and different stages of professional development [8, 29, 30].
The expression of preference for the spheres of professional life, family life and education in the control sample (not related to subcultures) is the highest in comparison with representatives of subcultures. The absolute importance of these spheres of life for a modern person is not in doubt. However, they can compete with each other entering into conflict due to the need to attract the same resources of the individual -temporary, psychological, energy, financial, etc. leading to the depletion of resources without their recovery and to emotional burnout. The increased risk of resource depletion and burnout for the control sample is also associated with the fact that the sphere of hobbies in this sample has the least importance in comparison with other samples. The activity of hobbies realization has an important potential to restore psychological resources, achieve personal well-being and prevent emotional burnout. Also, the coordination of different spheres of life of one person is promoted by linking them together through finding contact points. Such points can be common tasks, values, organization of activity taking into account their implementation in solving problems of both professional and educational and family. This approach is typical for a career with an anchor of Lifestyles, which, as mentioned above, is relatively insignificant in this sample.
Thus, the results describing the control sample (“non-subculture”) indicate the propensity of the respondents to the traditional understanding of career, consistent with both spiritual and material values and orientation to benefit people. The high importance of the spheres of professional activity, education and family life can become a risk factor of competition between these spheres and the development of emotional burnout, which is aggravated by the low significance of self-realization in the sphere of hobbies. Harmonization of different life spheres in the career and focus on solving complex non-standard professional tasks are consistent with the manifestation of individuality of the respondents, but in the sample, these indicators are relatively small.
A number of results showed a similarity of the control sample with one of the subcultures, with differences from the other. This confirms the thesis that there is a specific system of values within each subculture. Furthermore, these value systems may differ in different degrees from the general cultural value system - from its denial to its acceptance with some clarifications regarding the interaction of values and their hierarchy.
5. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
Knowledge about the peculiarities of youth subcultures, their characteristic value orientations, worldview, communicative features can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of pedagogical and psychological practice when working with young people and adolescents. The results of the study can be used in the practice of psychological services of the education system, in professional orientation and career counseling, in psychological education of adolescents, young people and adults - parents and teachers, as well as in the practice of psychological support of personnel management.
Management practice aimed at preserving the psychological and professional health of the staff can take into account the self-realization of a person in various areas, not only professional. Career and family are often considered as the most important and often competing areas of life. Fixation on only one area of life or competition between family and career can cause emotional burnout due to the high wasting of psychological resources without filling them. The existence of hobbies allows you to restore resources due to the fact that activity in the field of hobbies brings positive emotions and perform a recreational function. A person's identification with a non-professional subculture indicates the presence of a personally significant hobby and serves as a predictor of the availability of resources for coping with professional stress. If an individual does not belong to any subculture, a consultant psychologist or a human resources specialist can clarify whether a person has a hobby that he is engaged in, in his free time. In the process of consultation or psychological education, it is possible to emphasize the value of hobbies for personal well-being. In the practice of managing an organization, it is useful to create and develop opportunities for staff to be engaged not only in professional activity, but also in hobbies.
For effective career planning and employee motivation, it is also important to consider whether an individual's self-identification includes belonging to any subculture. For people who do not belong to subcultures, traditional career and material forms of remuneration will be attractive. If a person identifies himself with a subculture, he values his hobby highly and it is important for him to connect it harmoniously with his professional activity. So, an attractive career for him will be one that fits into the lifestyle and allows certain flexibility. Forms of motivation should also be related to the organization of a lifestyle - getting the opportunity to organize time and work conditions independently, and coordinating work tasks with personal values.
The results of an empirical study confirm the promoted hypothesis and allow us to draw the following conclusions.
The expressiveness of preferences of terminal values, career orientations and life spheres differ in different youth subcultures and individuals who do not belong to any subcultures. There are also differences in the relationships between the studied indicators.
The respondents of subcultural samples are aware of both the promotion and the obstacles to the realization of different values that are possible in the development of a career of one type or another. We consider it a prerequisite for more balanced career choices. Also, the respondents who refer themselves to subcultures pay great attention to the sphere of hobbies, which can serve as a means of preventing emotional burnout and a means of preserving personal well-being.
The respondents of the “Anime” sample are prone to harmonize their careers with their own individual characteristics, aspirations and hobbies, with different spheres of life. And those who are not inclined to managerial activity, intensive social activity and achievement of indicators of status and success traditionally valued in society.
The respondents of the “Rock” sample value their hobbies, aspire to combine different spheres of life harmoniously in the career, they are socially active and oriented for positive interaction with people. In a career, they are ready to solve difficult professional tasks and fulfill administrative functions. At that, they do not tend to deepen into the details of the profession and reach a high level of skill.
The respondents who do not refer themselves to any subcultures tend to build a traditional career consistent with both spiritual and material values and aimed at bringing benefits to people. At the same time, the equal importance of the spheres of professional activity, education and family life can become a risk factor of competition between these spheres and the development of emotional burnout, which is worsened by the low importance of self-realization in the sphere of hobbies. Taking into account the results of this study in the practice of professional consultation and psychological support of personnel management allows to increase the focus on the socio-psychological characteristics of the client's personality, thereby increasing the effectiveness of these types of psychological work.
The prospect for further research is considered to focus on other subcultures and other age groups at different stages of the career cycle.
ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE
The study is approved by the ethics committee of the Russian psychological society, Russia (Approval No.).
HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS
No Animals were used in this research. All human research procedures were followed in accordance with the ethical standards of the committee responsible for human experimentation (institutional and national), and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013.
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
Participants were informed on the aims of the study and gave informed consent prior to data collection.
AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS
This study was funded by the Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.
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