Developing National Identity Scale: As Indonesian Case

Baydhowi1, *, Urip Purwono1, Ahmad Gimmy Prathama Siswadi1, Moondore Madalina Ali2
1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Padjadjaran University Bandung, Sumedang, Indonesia
2 Department of Psychology, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia

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© 2022 Baydhowi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Padjadjaran University Bandung, Indonesia; E-mail:



National identity is an important concept to be developed, so it is necessary to have a measurement instrument that have evidence of validity and reliability. Thus, the accuracy of the information obtained through measurement of this instrument will be guaranteed.


This article aims to examine the psychometric property of the national identity scale to fulfill the standardization of accurate measurement.


In this study, three analytical approaches were used, those are content validity involving eight subject matter experts (SME), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability analysis. For the reliability and CFA approach, 300 students were used as samples who were taken through convenience sampling technique.


The results of the analysis show that out of the 20 items compiled in the content validity analysis, one item is inadequate because it has a below standard score on Aiken's coefficient of validity. This one item then revised again to be included in the tryout and data collection for the next stage of analysis. The results of the CFA analysis show that the model and data are fit and there are two inadequate items, while the contribution of the three factors on the national identity scale is significant. In the third analysis, it was found that an adequate coefficient reliability had an effect on the low Standard Error of Measurement (SEM).


Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the Indonesian national identity scale has fulfilled good psychometric properties. It can be proven from evidence validity base on content, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability analysis.

Keywords: National identity, Psychometrics, Reliability, Content validity, Standard error of measurement,, Confirmatory factor analysis.


Indonesia has various ethnic groups, languages, and religions. Based on the census conducted in 2010, there were 1340 ethnic groups and 1211 regional languages and five religions and one belief recognized by Indonesia, namely Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism [1]. The diversity of ethnicity, language, and religion is one of the factors in the formation of national identity. However, in the last few years, many events often disturb national identity, such as inter-ethnic and inter-religious conflicts. These conflicts occur because one tribe or religion feels superior to other ethnic groups or religions, such as Papua. There are problems between ethnic groups in Papua caused by land disputes [2]. Such disputes can result in increasing ethnic and religious identities, and gradually, the loss of the national identity of Indonesia.

National identity is an important concept in maintaining the sustainability of a country. Strong national identity will give birth to national attachment, which is a sincere sense of belongingness to the nation [3]. People who identify themselves in a particular nation positively will give birth to love for the homeland, which is manifested in behaviour that supports the sustainability and progress of the nation. National identity is not just a matter of citizenship. National identity is a psychological construct related to loyalty and attachment [4]. When someone is born in a country, he/she does not necessarily have a national identity. Psychologically, national identity grows and develops in line with forming self-identity [5, 6]. Therefore, national identity varies among individuals within a country [7]. Some have a high sense of ownership. Some individuals do not have a sense of ownership of a nation, although they have lived in the territory of that country. National identity is a multidimensional attitude system and comes from components of emotions and judgments associated with national affiliation [8]. it is because the firmness of an individual's stance on a nation is also related to its national identity [9].

On the other hand, social conditions have an impact on the growth and development of national identity. Industrial revolution era 4.0 is characterised by the engineering of intelligence and the internet of things as the backbone of the movement and connectivity of humans and machines [10]. This phenomenon certainly impacts humans to live, think and interact with one another. Industrial revolution as described by Schwab [10] facilitate access to information and communication and global interactions. On the other hand, social conditions have an impact on the growth and development of national identity. Thus, globalization allows for interactions between individuals and organizations that transcend national boundaries. This fact has an impact like two sides of a coin. Globalization opens up opportunities for positive development, provision of business capital, employment, the choice for consumers, and political freedom [11]. At the same time, globalization will encourage the waning of national identities as a result of a global social network [12]. People may follow a global social network without a shared physical presence.

Considering national identity is a potent symbol used to maintain the security of a local country's territory in the face of globalization, research on national identity has an important place. Therefore, adequate measurements are needed. Therefore, this article fulfils the need for measuring tools for research on national identity in the Indonesian context. Until now, there have not been many measuring instruments constructed in the Indonesian context. Based on the author's research, there are two measurements of national identity in the Indonesian context. The first is the social identity scale developed by Suwartono and Moningka [13]. This scale is an adaptation of the collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker [9]. Although this scale is called social identity, the social environment referred to in this context is the Indonesian nation [13]. Unfortunately, developers of this scale tend to equate collective self-esteem and national identity. People who identify themselves in a group do not necessarily have positive self-esteem because of their involvement in the group. In contrast, collective self-esteem is a feeling of self-esteem derived from membership in a group [14]. Second, the National Identity Scale or Skala Identitas Nasional (SIN) consists of 12 items developed by Supratiknya [15]. The National Identity Scale (SIN) adapts Phinney's multi-ethnic identity measure [14], consisting of 12 items. This scale is compiled using the Likert style. In its adaptation, phrases related to ethnicity were changed to Indonesia [15]. The weakness of this scale lies in the theoretical basis that uses social identity theory with a socio-psychological perspective that puts forward a cultural dimension that views national identity as static whereas national identity is a dynamic psychological problem.

Therefore aim of this article is to fulfill the need for measurement on behalf of research about national identity in the Indonesian context because Indonesia is multi-ethnic and religious, it is vulnerable to the growth and strengthening of primordialism, which is an intrinsic feeling of pride, dedication, and intense emotions for ethnicity and race, religion, language, history, and country of origin [16]. Although, ethnicity and religion are part of individuals’ identity however, for state security, these identities should not go beyond the national identity. National identity is a strong symbol that is used to protect the security of the territory of a country, that is local in facing globalization, thus research on national identity has an important place and also until now there have not been many measuring instruments constructed in the Indonesian context


National identity is a variable that has a broad scope. In this research, the discussion of national identity prioritizes a social psychology approach. This approach seeks to trace the formation of national identity within the individual and its consequences for attachment to the nation that is an individual's affiliation. From a psychological point of view, the term national identity is used to describe an attribute of the relationship between an individual and their nation. As well as its magnitude varies from one individual to another.

The concept of national identity theoretically comes from the development of social identity theory initiated by Tajfel and Turner [17]. Social identity is a sense of connectedness, caring, proud can come from a person's knowledge in various categories of social membership with other members, even without the need to have close personal relationships, know or have various interests [6]. When individuals belong to a certain group, they will be more attached to one group compared to other groups [17]. Through this theory of social identity, it is possible to predict behavior between certain groups based on differences in-group status, perceived legitimacy and stability due to these differences in status, and perceived ability to move from one group to another [18].

According to Hogg [19 ], there are two interrelated psychological processes in social identity theory, namely identification and classification. When an individual categorizes himself as a member of a group, he then identifies the characteristics, behaviors, and norms of his group that distinguishes him from other groups [20 ]. Furthermore, people will classify themselves and others by considering their social group to distinguish their ingroup and outgroup [ 21 ]. Such phenomena will have a negative impact because cultural diversity can form conflicts, thus social integration will be difficult to achieve [ 22 ]. However, this condition can be resolved by strengthening cultural intelligence (CQ). Ott and Michailova [ 23 ] define CQ as an individual's ability to work effectively in a culturally diverse environment. Ratasuk and Charoensukmongkol [ 24 ] in their research on the restaurant business, found that high CQ has a positive relationship with the knowledge sharing team and the innovation team. Then Seriwatana and Charoensukmongkol, in their research on aircraft cabin crews, also proved that CQ is related to team relationship conflict and team trust [ 25 ]. From the two studies above, it can be concluded that high CQ can form social integrity and collaboration among individuals with different social identities.

Social identity itself is part of the self-concept that comes from an affiliation in social groups, in a larger context it includes the nation. Based on the opinion of Tajfel and Turner [17], it can be understood that national identity can be used to describe a person's subjective attitude towards their nation.The concept of national identity contains an assumption about the general perception or meaning of a person about who he/she is as a part or citizen of a country [26]. Such picture grows and develops socially and is considered a phenomenon determined by historical and cultural factors. National identity tends to show stability. However, it changes over time. The development of national identity can be manipulated politically from top to bottom, or the otherway around [27]. National identity can grow from top-down approach, namely through massive education and campaigns carried out by the government in a country.

Blank [7] uses the term national identification to describe the intensity of feelings towards one nation or the intensity of proximity. National identification is seen as a relevant factor for the stability of the country in maintaining its political form and boundaries, although there is no clear measure to see this stability. However, Blank [7] points out that the low subjective identification between individuals and nations can lead to political instability with fatal consequences, such as the separation of Czechoslovakia and the disintegration of the Russian multinational system during the time of Soviet Union.


National identity itself is a form of social identity. From a psychological point of view, national identity grows and develops along with personal identity. Also, personal identity is a sense of self in the context of personal relationships and unique traits, while social identity is self in the context of group membership [6]. In the formation of personal identity, humans will search and interact with social agents, so that simultaneously a social identity might be cultivated, this also includes national identity [28].

In the perspective of developmental psychology, identity development begins in adolescence and continues in emerging adulthood where people have a wider range of exploration [29]. Through the media of communication with social agents, personal formation brings a person to an understanding and awareness of social identity, including national identity [28]. The growth of awareness of identity is the initial formulation that is reconstructed and reformulated throughout the life cycle [30].With the growth of social identity, a person will be responsive to his environment [30]. Research in the United States and other post-industrial societies show people in the stage of emerging adulthood seek to demonstrate commitment to a set of goals, values, and beliefs of their nation, this becomes a resource for them to counteract anomie and lack of collective support [30].

Theoretically, the process of an individual to identify himself in a nation begins with the internalization of important elements that characterize a nation, such as shared values, beliefs, hopes, or ideals [31]. When this has become a part of a person's self, then a person's identity will be affected. In this condition, a person acts not only as a person but also as part of a nation. Their perspective on the world will also be influenced by the elements of national identity that have been adopted [31]. Several studies have shown that high national identity encourages civic involvement in the United States [32]. Civil involvement in various social issues is certainly a positive thing for the sustainability and development of a country. In other studies, it has also been proven that a strong national identity has a positive impact on political trust [33]. Political trust is a prerequisite for effective governance. Political chaos, both at the government level and the horizontal level, is an indicator of anomie that has the potential to destroy a nation [34].


National identity is defined as an attachment to its own national group and a sense of belonging [4]. A national identity that has taken root as a result of a continuous process of diffusion will foster national pride and ultimately promote the creation of an effective government, tax compliance, and support for protectionism and development processes [35]. People who have a sense of belongingness will be easily touched by their feelings when dealing with important state symbols. People usually behave this way when they see the flag or listen to the national anthem, they feel proud which further strengthens a strong sense of unity [4]. At the extreme, this feeling sometimes motivates people to do unreasonable heroic actions [36].

Corkalo and Kamenov's conceptualization of national identity [4] refers to a psychological approach rooted in the theory of Tajfel and Tuner [17] which interprets it as a sense of membership in a group as a place to shed a sense of ownership and attachment. Then Corkalo and Kamenov [4] divide national identity into four aspects:

1. National pride, which includes the feeling of belonging to the nation and the feeling of the great value of all elements related to the nation.

2. Exclusive national belonging or nationalism, which is marked by emphasizing a sense of unity and togetherness to distinguish it from people from other nations.

3. National devotion includes loyalty to the nation that goes beyond personal interests.

4. Cosmopolitanism, which is a manifestation of the absence of national attachments in any form and a sense of humanity that is owned is not based on national equality but is universal.

Corkalo and Kamenov [4] explanation regarding the four aspects of national identity has concluded that cosmopolitanism is not an inherent part of national identity itself. The fourth aspect does not provide any information on how strong a person's national identity is. Cosmopolitanism focuses on the perspective of moral issues and justice beyond the boundaries of state and citizenship [37]. This becomes confused with the concept of national identity. Therefore, cosmopolitanism is not included as an aspect of measuring national identity in the Indonesian context.


To produce a quality measuring instrument, it is necessary to carry out several stages of testing. It is important to meet the standards as evidenced by evidence of feasibility from a psychometric point of view. The Indonesian version of the national identity scale test uses three pieces of evidence which are carried out in stages, which include evidence of validity based on test content, evidence of validity based on the internal structure and reliability verification and standard error measurement estimates.

5.1. Content Validity

This phenomenon is one of the reasons for the preparation of a national identity measurement instrument in the Indonesian context [38]. The concept of content validation is to assess whether the items in a measuring instrument represent the construct to be measured [39]. Content validation is a series of activities that take place after the initial form of the instrument has been developed. This validation process involves a subject matter expert (SME) who is considered capable of providing an assessment of the construct being measured and does not participate in the construction of the test [38].

This study involved eight people in providing an assessment. Technically, the assessment team was asked to provide an item clarity rating with a choice of five graded options, namely 1=very unclear, 2=not clear, 3=somewhat clear, 4=clear, and 5=very clear. The results of the assessment carried out by the assessment team were analysed using the Aiken's validity approach formulated by Aiken [40] with the following formula:

V = S / [n(c-1)] (1)

Where S = r - lo, Lo = the lowest number of validity assessments. C = the highest validity score and r = the number given by the subject matter expert (SME).

5.2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis

The evidence of validity based on the internal structure is done by factor analysis, more specifically, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which is appropriate when the researcher knows the structure of the underlying latent variables [41]. From here, a researcher will build a structural model of the relationship between indicators and latent variables based on knowledge of theory. CFA is tasked with testing the relationship between the observed indicator variables and latent variables or factors [42]. The relationship between the latent variable and its indicators is called the loading factor. Thus, for testing the relationship between each indicator and the latent variable, there is a hypothesis that can be tested statistically [39]. More specifically, the CFA used in this study is a second-order CFA where the latent variable (KSI) is not measured directly through indicators, but through another latent variable (eta) and the relationship between ksi and eta is called gamma with the symbol γ.

In confirmatory factor testing, the analysis begins with a model fit test which aims to see the fit between the model and the data. The indices that can be used for testing the fit model include the chi-square whose p-value is below 0.05 [43]. Unfortunately, this chi-square is sensitive to sample size, so the chi-square is difficult to fit [44]. Referring to this, there are alternatives for model fit testing. There is at least three goodness of fit indices that need to be reported in the CFA analysis, namely the comparative fit index (CFI), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) [45]. The cut off value for CFI and TLI is 0.95 [44] while RMSEA below 0.8 can be considered fit [46]. After testing the goodness of fit, the lamda (λ) test continues, which states the relationship between the indicator and ksi or eta and gamma (γ), which explains the ksi and eta relationship can be tested for its significance. The value that becomes the benchmark for this significance test is the t-value which must be above 1.96 [47]. In addition, it is also suggested that an item is said to be good if it has a lambda coefficient above 0.5 [45].

5.3. Reliability and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

After the evidence is based on the content, a try-out is carried out for reliability testing and evidence of validity based on the internal structure. Reliability guarantees that the resulting score will be consistent if repeated under relatively the same conditions [39]. This is because a reliable measuring instrument will have a lower measurement error [38]. Under these conditions, measurement accuracy is guaranteed. The reliability itself in this article will be estimated with Cronbach's Alpha and continued with this analysis, followed by estimation of the standard error of measurement (SEM). Provisions for a measuring instrument to be considered reliable are when it has a reliability coefficient above 0.7 [48].

It should be noted that reliability and validity are two different concepts, so they cannot be compared with each other. Historically, these two psychometric concepts have different concepts of quality and accuracy of measurement so that they are placed in different areas [49, 50]. Thus, the use of these two approaches in the analysis of national identity aims to complement each other. Considering that, a high-reliability index alone is not enough to guarantee that the measurement tool has a good validity. Validity is usually never higher than reliability [51].

5.4. Participants

There are three stages of analysis in this study, namely content validity, confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability analysis. In content validity step, eight samples were used, which were subject matter experts (SME). In confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability analysis, the sample size is 300 students from 18 universities in Indonesia. The CFA requires the number of samples used for data analysis, namely the minimum sample size is around 100 or 200. Thus, the number of samples in this study is adequate for analysis. The sampling of the research was carried out by non-probability sampling method, more specifically convenient sampling.

5.5. Instrument

The measuring instrument tested in this article is the Indonesian national identity scale. This developed instrument has 20 items divided into three aspects, as shown in Table 1 below.

The response of each item is graded from level 1 to 5, the higher the number chosen, the more important the item is and describes itself in each statement. Examples of items from the national identity scale are as follows:

5.5.1. National Pride

1. Saya bangga menjadi warga negara Indonesia

I am proud to be an Indonesian citizen

2. Ketika mendengarkan lagu Indonesia Raya timbul suatu kebanggaan dalam diri saya

When I listen to Indonesia Raya, there is a feeling of pride in me

3. Saya bangga dengan konsep Bhineka Tunggal Ika yang dimiliki Indonesia

I am proud of the Bhineka Tunggal Ika’s concept that Indonesia has

5.5.2. Exclusive National Belonging

1. Saya merasa tidak terlalu penting untuk menjadi bagian dari bangsa Indonesia (-)

I feel it is not too important to be part of the Indonesian nation (-)

2. Dengan segala kondisinya Indonesia tetap paling hebat bagi saya

With all the conditions, Indonesia remains the best for me

3. Kecintaan kepada Indonesia membuat saya tak ingin berpindahwarga negara

Love for Indonesia makes me not want to change my citizenship

5.5.3. National Devotion

1. Saya bersedia menyisihkan uang untuk memberikan bantuan sesame bangsa Indonesia yang kesulitan

I am willing to set aside some money to provide assistance to fellow Indonesians who are in trouble

2. Saya ikut berpartispasi dalam kegiatan masyarakat untuk melestarikan gotong royong

I participate in community activities to preserve mutual cooperation

3. Saya siap menjadi suka relawan untuk membela bangsa

I am ready to volunteer to defend the nation


The results of the content validity analysis are listed in Table 2 below. It should be noted that the content validity assessment process involved eight subject matter experts (SMEs) who were asked to provide an assessment with five levels. In the context of this study, the authors determine the significance level is 5% so that based on the Aiken validity coefficient signification table, the limit of an item is said to be good or significant if it has a validity coefficient above 0.75. (Appendix 1).

From Table 2 it is known that item 11 has a validity coefficient of 0.59 (<0.75), which indicates that the item is not significant. Therefore, item number 11 was revised based on comments and suggestions from the assessment team and will be included in the subsequent empirical trial..

It should be noted that the use of content validity analysis on measuring tools that measure typical performance, such as the national identity scale is less common. In general, content validity is used to ensure the quality of content on achievement tests [50]. There are some difficulties when content validity is applied in typical performance tests, among which are behavioral indicators that are more indirect than indicators on achievement tests.

However, content validity can be used for testing typical performance measuring instruments, but it should be noted that it is not possible to include all indicators. On the other hand, in the assessment, the subjectivity factor can appear when the subject matter expert (SME) assesses whether the item is included in the scale, of course, based on the theory he adheres to [50]. At least with the process at the beginning of the researcher, these results can be the basis for item revision. To complement the validity of the evidence, the author uses internal evidence with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

The measurement model for the CFA analysis of the Indonesian national identity scale consists of one ksi (ξ), which has three factors or eta (η), namely national pride (NP), exclusive national belongingness (ENB), and national devotion (ND). NP has five indicators, ENB has seven indicators and ND has six indicators. Thus, this CFA analysis is classified as a second ordered factor analysis which is tasked with testing the relationship between ksi and eta and testing the 20 lambdas as the relationship between the indicator and each factor. The goodness-of-fit test was conducted first for the interpretation stage of the CFA. The interpretation results showed that RMSEA = 0.065 (< 0.08) TLI 0.97 (> 0.95) and CFI 0.97 (> 0.95). Based on these results, it is known that the proposed model fits the data. Subsequent to the goodness-of-fit model test, it can be interpreted that the contribution of factor loading from all items to each of the factors alluded to the lambda value. The summary of the information result can be seen in the index contained in the following Table 3:

Table 1. Blue print Indonesian national identity scale.
No Aspect Item Total
1 National pride (NP) 1, 2, 4, 13, 14 5
2 Exclusive national belonging (ENB) 3(-), 5(-), 7, 8, 9, 10, 11(-), 16 8
3 National devotion (ND) 6, 12, 15, 17(-), 18, 19,20 7
Totals 20
Table 2. Aiken's coefficient validity.
No Coeff. Validity No Coeff. Validity
1 0.88 11 0.59
2 0.91 12 0.78
3 0.81 13 0.91
4 0.88 14 0.94
5 0.78 15 0.81
6 0.88 16 0.91
7 0.81 17 0.81
8 0.88 18 0.97
9 0.84 19 0.88
10 1.00 20 0.88
Table 3. Lambda, standard error and t-value.
Item Factor lambda SE T-Value P-Value
1 NP 0.75 0.03 21.85 0.00
2 NP 0.89 0.03 32.82 0.00
4 NP 0.87 0.03 32.60 0.00
13 NP 0.76 0.04 19.89 0.00
14 NP 0.76 0.04 20.49 0.00
3 ENB 0.81 0.04 20.41 0.00
5 ENB 0.74 0.04 18.04 0.00
7 ENB 0.89 0.02 40.68 0.00
8 ENB 0.65 0.04 17.76 0.00
9 ENB 0.80 0.03 25.36 0.00
10 ENB 0.85 0.03 33.05 0.00
11 ENB -0.22 0.05 -4.17 0.00
16 ENB 0.60 0.05 12.89 0.00
6 ND 0.52 0.05 10.74 0.00
12 ND 0.83 0.03 32.65 0.00
15 ND 0.82 0.03 28.97 0.00
17 ND -0.25 0.06 -4.30 0.00
18 ND 0.69 0.04 18.83 0.00
19 ND 0.60 0.04 15.53 0.00
20 ND 0.74 0.03 23.81 0.00
Table 4. Gamma, standard error and t-value each factor.
Factor Gamma Se T-value P-Value
National pride 0.94 0.02 52.91 0.00
Exclusive national belonging 0.88 0.02 47.74 0.00
National devotion 0.97 0.02 50.68 0.00
Table 5. Reliability & SEM.
Aspect Alpha SEM
NP 0.851 1.08
ENB 0.820 1.72
ND 0.824 1.67

From the table above, it can also be seen that all factors have a significant gamma because the t-value is above 1.96. The three factors (National pride, Exclusive national belonging, and National devotion) make a significant contribution in measuring national identity.

In addition to item contribution, second order testing also took place. Second order of cfa also examined the contribution of each factor to the construction of national identity, the results of which are summarized in Table 4.

From the table above, it can also be seen that all factors have a significant gamma because the t-value is above 1.96. The three factors (National pride, Exclusive national belonging, and National devotion) make a significant contribution in measuring national identity.

The next stage is reliability analysis and standard error of measurement. Both are interrelated and serve to ensure the accuracy of the score produced by the measuring instrument because a reliable measuring instrument will have a lower measurement error. The results of the reliability analysis and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) are presented in the Table 5.

Based on the Table 5 above, it is known that the reliability coefficient for the three sub-scales of national identity is greater than 0.70, which indicates that the scale is reliable. In addition, from the table, it is also known that the sub-scale that has greater reliability has a low standard error measurement (SEM). Indeed, theoretically, this reliability is related to SEM [39].


The analysis results showed that the Indonesian national identity scale exhibited acceptable standards of good psychometric properties. This can be proven from several standards: First, in terms of the evidence validity based on content, there is only one out of 20 items that has an inadequate Aiken validity coefficient. After the revision process of this item then, proceed with further analysis. Second, the test results through CFA show a match between the data and the model. Further, the CFA analysis indicated that only two items were not significant because they had lambda below 0.5, i.e., items number 11 and 17. Overall, the three factors of the measurement scale had a significant contribution to national identity which is indicated by a significant gamma coefficient. and tested in this study has provided evidence of the validity and reliablity that it is feasible to use to explore national identity information among Indonesian students.

Appendix 1. Table Aiken validity significance.
No. of Items (m) or Rates (n) Number of Rating Categories (c)
2 3 4 5 6 7
V p V p V p V p V p V p
2 1 0.04 1 0.028 1 0.02
3 1 0.008 1 0.005 1 0.003
3 1 0.037 1 0.016 0.92 0.032 0.87 0.046 0.89 0.029
4 1 0.004 0.94 0.008 0.95 0.004 0.92 0.006
4 1 0.012 0.92 0.02 0.88 0.024 0.85 0.027 0.83 0.029
5 1 0.004 0.93 0.006 0.9 0.007 0.88 0.007 0.87 0.007
5 1 0.031 0.9 0.025 0.87 0.021 0.8 0.04 0.8 0.032 0.77 0.047
6 0.92 0.01 0.89 0.007 0.88 0.005 0.83 0.01 0.83 0.008
6 1 0.016 0.83 0.038 0.78 0.05 0.79 0.029 0.77 0.036 0.75 0.041
7 0.93 0.004 0.86 0.007 0.82 0.01 0.83 0.006 0.81 0.008
7 1 0.008 0.86 0.016 0.76 0.045 0.75 0.041 0.74 0.038 0.74 0.036
8 1 0.004 0.88 0.007 0.83 0.007 0.81 0.008 0.8 0.007 0.79 0.007
8 0.88 0.035 0.81 0.024 0.75 0.04 0.75 0.03 0.72 0.039 0.71 0.047
9 1 0.002 0.89 0.003 0.81 0.007 0.81 0.006 0.78 0.009 0.78 0.007
9 0.89 0.02 0.78 0.032 0.74 0.036 0.72 0.038 0.71 0.039 0.7 0.04
10 1 0.001 0.85 0.005 0.8 0.007 0.78 0.008 0.76 0.009 0.75 0.01
10 0.9 0.001 0.75 0.004 0.73 0.032 0.7 0.047 0.7 0.039 0.68 0.048
11 0.91 0.006 0.82 0.007 0.79 0.007 0.77 0.006 0.75 0.01 0.74 0.009
11 0.82 0.033 0.73 0.048 0.73 0.029 0.7 0.035 0.69 0.038 0.68 0.041
12 0.92 0.003 0.79 0.01 0.78 0.006 0.75 0.009 0.73 0.01 0.74 0.009
12 0.83 0.019 0.75 0.025 0.69 0.046 0.69 0.041 0.68 0.038 0.67 0.047
13 0.92 0.002 0.81 0.005 0.77 0.006 0.75 0.006 0.74 0.007 0.72 0.008
13 0.77 0.046 0.73 0.03 0.69 0.041 0.67 0.048 0.68 0.037 0.67 0.041
14 0.86 0.006 0.79 0.006 0.76 0.005 0.73 0.006 0.73 0.007 0.71 0.01
14 0.79 0.029 0.71 0.035 0.69 0.036 0.68 0.036 0.66 0.05 0.66 0.046
15 0.87 0.004 0.77 0.008 0.73 0.01 0.73 0.006 0.72 0.007 0.71 0.009
15 0.8 0.018 0.7 0.04 0.69 0.032 0.67 0.041 0.65 0.048 0.66 0.039
16 0.88 0.002 0.75 0.01 0.73 0.009 0.72 0.008 0.71 0.007 0.7 0.01
16 0.75 0.038 0.69 0.046 0.67 0.047 0.66 0.046 0.65 0.046 0.65 0.044
17 0.82 0.006 0.76 0.005 0.73 0.008 0.71 0.01 0.71 0.007 0.71 0.009
17 0.76 0.025 0.71 0.026 0.67 0.041 0.66 0.036 0.65 0.044 0.65 0.048
18 0.83 0.004 0.75 0.006 0.72 0.007 0.71 0.007 0.71 0.007 0.7 0.01
18 0.72 0.048 0.69 0.03 0.67 0.036 0.65 0.04 0.65 0.044 0.65 0.046
19 0.79 0.01 0.74 0.008 0.72 0.006 0.7 0.009 0.7 0.007 0.68 0.009
19 0.74 0.032 0.68 0.033 0.65 0.05 0.64 0.044 0.64 0.04 0.63 0.048
20 0.8 0.006 0.72 0.009 0.7 0.01 0.69 0.01 0.68 0.01 0.68 0.008
20 0.75 0.021 0.68 0.037 0.65 0.044 0.64 0.048 0.64 0.038 0.63 0.041
21 0.81 0.004 0.74 0.005 0.7 0.01 0.69 0.008 0.68 0.01 0.68 0.009
21 0.71 0.039 0.67 0.041 0.65 0.039 0.64 0.038 0.63 0.048 0.63 0.045
22 0.77 0.008 0.73 0.006 0.7 0.008 0.68 0.009 0.67 0.01 0.67 0.008
22 0.73 0.026 0.66 0.041 0.65 0.035 0.64 0.041 0.63 0.046 0.62 0.049
23 0.78 0.005 0.72 0.007 0.7 0.007 0.68 0.007 0.67 0.01 0.67 0.009
23 0.7 0.047 0.65 0.048 0.64 0.046 0.63 0.045 0.63 0.044 0.62 0.043
24 0.79 0.003 0.71 0.008 0.69 0.006 0.68 0.01 0.67 0.01 0.66 0.01
24 0.71 0.032 0.67 0.03 0.64 0.041 0.64 0.041 0.62 0.041 0.62 0.046
25 0.76 0.007 0.7 0.009 0.68 0.01 0.67 0.009 0.66 0.009 0.66 0.009
25 0.72 0.022 0.66 0.033 0.64 0.037 0.63 0.038 0.62 0.039 0.61 0.049


This study approved by ethics committee Padjadjaran University nomor 1228/UN6.KEP/ EC/ 2019.


No animals were used for studies that are the basis of this research. All the human procedures used were in accordance with the ethical standards of the committee responsible for human experimentation (institutional and national), and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013 (


Informed consent was obtained from the student who participated in this research.


Not applicable.


This research supported Beasiswa Unggulan Dosen Indonesia (BUDI) scholarship from Lembaga Pengelola Dana Pendidikan (LPDP) Kementrian Keuangan Republik Indonesia with ID Number: 201710211011860.


The authors declare that no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.


We wish to thank all Indonesian student universities that participate in this research and the research assistant who helped in collecting research data.


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