Social and Behavioral Rhythms is Related to the Perception of Quality of Life in Old Adults

Mauro Giovanni Carta1, *, Elisa Pintus1, Rosanna Zaccheddu1, Omar Callia1, Giuliana Conti1, Cesar Ivan Aviles Gonzalez2, Luigi Minerba1, Roberto Demontis1, Massimiliano Pau3, Eleonora Cocco1, Maria Petronilla Penna4, Goce Kalcev5, Stefano Lorrai1, Fernanda Velluzzi1, Andrea Lovoselli1, Marco Monticone1, Maria Valeria Massidda1, Maria Rita Pinna1, Laura Atzori1, Alberto Cauli1, Alessandra Scano6, Germano Orrù6, Antonio Crisafulli1, Sofia Cosentino1, Sergio Machado7, Dario Fortin8, Gian Mario Migliaccio9, Gabriele Finco1, Mario Musu1, Giulia Cossu1
1 Department of Sports Methods and Techniques, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
2 Laboratory of Physical Activity Neuroscience, Neurodiversity Institute, Queimados-RJ, Brazil
3 Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
4 Department of Pedagogy, Psychology, Philosophy, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
5 Innovation Sciences and Technologies, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
6 Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
7 Neuroscience Lab at Salgado de Oliveira University (UNIVERSO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
8 Univeristy of Trento, Trento, Italy
9 Regional School of Sport of Sardinia, Italian Olympic Committee, Cagliari, Italy

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© 2022 Carta et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Sports Methods and Techniques, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil; E-mail:



The purpose is to verify in old adults if social and behavioral rhythms (SBRs) are correlated with a positive perception of the quality of life (QoL). Social and behavioral rhythms and related circadian biorhythms are known as central points in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders. A secondary aim is to see if a similar relationship can be found in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in old adults. Sample: 141 people aged ≥65 years (58.9% Female).


Each subject was evaluated using the Social and Behavioral Rhythms Scale (in which higher scores show more dysfunctional SRBs); SF-12 for QoL and a screening tool for depressive symptoms. They underwent a medical evaluation and blood level assays including cholesterol and triglycerides. The medical diagnoses including MDD were taken into account.


The Social and Behavioral Rhythms Scale score correlated inversely with SF-12 score (p<0.001) and positively with PHQ9 (p<0.0001). People with MDD had a higher score on social rhythms than controls without (p<0.01). The study highlighted, for the first time, that social and behavioral rhythms have a role in old adults living in the community.


Further longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of individuals will be required to confirm these data and clarify causal links of the association.

Keywords: Social rhythm, Behavioral rhythm, Well-being, Old adults, Positive well-being, Association.