RESEARCH ARTICLE


The Peculiarities of Professional Ideas of Visually Impaired Junior School- children with Different Level of Personal Anxiety and Aggression



Evgenia Rogova1, Marina Naumenko1, Evgeny Rogov1, Anna Sheveleva1, *
1 Academy of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Southern Federal University, 105/42 Bolshaya Sadovaya Str., 344006, Rostov-on-Don, Russia


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© 2021 Rogova et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Academy of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Southern Federal University, 105/42 Bolshaya Sadovaya Str., 344006, Rostov-on-Don, Russia; Tel: +79185536103; E-mail: amsheveleva@sfedu.ru


Abstract

Background:

The problem of purposeful systematic formation of professional ideas is particularly actual for visually impaired children in the context of reduced social contacts, at the same time an emotional sphere as a factor contributing to the compensation of the defect plays a great role for such children.

Objective:

To analyze the relationship of professional ideas of visually impaired young schoolchildren with personal components such as anxiety, aggression, level of introversion and extroversion.

Methods:

The respondents of the study were visually impaired junior students in the age from 9 to 11 years of the State public educational institution of Rostov Region, Russia “Rostov Special Boarding School Nº 38” in the amount of 94 people. We diagnosed the level of personal anxiety using the Spielberger scale. A questionnaire aimed at studying the ideas about the object of activity (E.I. Rogov) was used. Diagnostics of the level of aggression of schoolchildren was applied using the test “Cactus” (M. A. Panfilova). And the technique for diagnostics of professional activity motivation (K. Zamfir) was also used.

Results:

It has been established that the emotional and will component of professional ideas depends on the level of aggression, introversion and extroversion, from this point of view the combination of extroversion and aggression is favorable. The combination of introversion and aggression is the worst in respect of the emotional component, and introversion and non-aggressiveness is the worst in respect of the will component.

Conclusion:

The scientific categories presented in the article: professional ideas, anxiety, aggression, the degree of extroversion and introversion in the personality structure of visually impaired younger schoolchildren have certain relationships. The obtained data can be used preparing programs for purposeful formation of professional ideas of visually impaired younger schoolchildren.

Keywords: Profession, Ideas, Evaluation factor, Potency factor, Activity factor, Clarity factor, Anxiety.



1. INTRODUCTION

Professional and career preferences are formed on the basis of many factors, the main of which are: the available theoretical knowledge about the spheres of professional activity, the developed practical skills which allow to judge about the degree of individual suitability for a particular sphere, and finally - the personal attitude towards the profe- ssion [1]. V. Z. Deniskina emphasizes that the necessary part of vocational guidance is the reliance on the ideas of school- children about professions. Qualitative and quantitative chan- ges observed in pathological disorders of visual analyzer activity cannot change the very nature and nature of repre- sentations. Fragmentation, schematism, lack of generality, verbalism and the narrow range of memory images in the blind and visually impaired are largely overcome in the process of compensation [2]. A. G. Litvak notes that in properly organized corrective work it is possible to accumulate a sufficient stock of perceptions, which can sufficiently fully reflect the surrounding world [3]. For the present moment professional ideas are being studied quite actively (L.V. Andreeva, E.E. Rogova, A.O. Antonova, etc.). The present study is based on the research of ideas about the object of professional activity presented in the scientific works of E.I. Rogov [4-6].

The role of emotional sphere in the process of compensation of a defect is repeatedly emphasized in children with special educational needs, namely visually impaired (A.M. Vilensky, I.G. Kornilova, A.G. Litvak, L.I. Plaksina, etc.). Visual defect prevents successful entry into society and contributes to the experience of emotional distress. Severe stresses lead to the development of excitation, which disorganizes human behavior, and their further strengthening - to the development of inhibition, which causes passivity and refusal of activity. Experiences of emotional discomfort form anxiety as an emotional state and as a stable property of the personality. Anxiety is the subject of study of both domestic and foreign scholars (V.M. Astapov, A.I. Zakharov, N.D. Levitov, A.M. Prihozhyan, Ch.D. Spielberger, etc.). Personal anxiety is understood as a stable individual characteristic that reflects a person's predisposition to anxiety and suggests that he has a tendency to perceive a quite wide range of situations as threatening, responding to each of them with a certain reaction [7]. However, A.M. Prihozhyan pays attention to the fact that at school anxious children often achieve high results and are evaluated by teachers as responsible and successful students [8].

We also consider the phenomenon of aggression in our study, by aggression we mean the negative reaction to the situation of frustration created by others, as well as behavior aimed at harming someone or something. The relationship of aggression is found with various psychological phenomena, in particular J.M. Alvarado studied the relationship of aggressive reactions with such a phenomenon as pleasure, enjoyment, which gives reason to consider genodistic aggression [9]. Aggressive behavior consists of three components: cognitive, emotional and volitional. The cognitive component includes an understanding of the situation, the selection of the object and the justification of the motive for aggression. The emotional component is an easy occurrence of negative emotions: disgust, contempt, anger. The volitional component is purposefulness, perseverance, determination, initiative. All of them are associated with the physiological peculiarities of personality - temperament, introversion and extroversion [10, 11].

The samples of persons with disabilities examine such indicators of career development as preferences in the choice of educational opportunities - educational methods and thematic areas of education [12], professional and career preferences [13, 14], professional and educational motivation [15, 16], professional orientation [17, 18].

2. METHODOLOGY

The respondents of the study were visually impaired junior students in the age from 9 to 11 years of the State public educational institution of Rostov Region “Rostov Special Boarding School Nº 38” aged 9 to 11 years. The total number of respondents was 94 people, including 54 girls and 40 boys.

In the course of the study, the following methods were used:

1) A questionnaire aimed at studying the ideas about the object of activity (E. I. Rogov). The questionnaire is based on semantic differential principle of Ch. Osgood and reveals the ideas about professions according to four factors: evaluation, potency, activity, and clarity.

The evaluation factor indicates the degree of respect for the profession and the object of professional activity on the part of the respondent.

The potency factor points at the respondent's perception of the profession as stable and sustainable (in the case of high indicators on the scale) or dependent on external circumstances (in the case of low indicators).

The factor of the activity is interpreted as evidence of the demand of extroverted (at high indicators on the scale) or introverted (at low indicators on the scale) characteristics of a professional in the understanding of the respondent in the profession.

The clarity factor shows accuracy, contrast, adequacy, brightness of ideas about the profession on the whole and the object of activity in the mind of the respondent.

2) The scale of self-assessment of anxiety by Ch. D. Spielberger in the adaptation of Y. L. Khanin. This technique involves the identification of situational and personal anxiety.

Personal anxiety is considered as a stable characteristic of a person, as a property of personality. A high level of personal anxiety indicates a person's tendency to exaggerate the degree of danger of the situation, to see a threat for other people in neutral objects of reality. The presence of this type of anxiety usually points at an intrapersonal neurotic conflict.

Situational anxiety is considered as a state, as a reaction to a situation. A person demonstrating a high level of situational anxiety is characterized by tension, anxiety, and nervousness. Situational anxiety is actualized during periods of increased responsibility, in situations of risk, stress, and often causes a violation of attention and coordination.

3) The test “Cactus” (M. A. Panfilova). This technique has a projective nature and consists of two stages: drawing and conversation. At the first stage, the child is asked to draw a cactus flower as he imagines it, then follows the interpretation of the drawing, including the analysis of the following characteristics: the presence and nature of the drawing of needles, the size, degree of pressure on the pencil, the colors. At the second stage, a standardized conversation based on the drawing is used. The method involves the diagnostics of the level of extroversion/introversion, aggression, impulsivity, egocentrism, the degree of uncertainty and anxiety.

4) Test to diagnose the motivation of professional activity (K. Zamfir) in the modification by A. A. Rean. It is aimed at identification of the dominance of intrinsic, extrinsic positive or extrinsic negative motivation. In the case of the predominance of intrinsic motivation the activity itself is important for the individual. The desire to perform an activity is not related to any other factors besides the activity itself and its content. Extrinsic motivation is triggered by factors that are not directly related to the activity itself. In the case of extrinsic positive motivation these factors can be, for example, the social status achieved through the profession or the level of income provided by the profession. Extrinsic negative motivation is based on factors of avoiding failures, for example, the desire to avoid criticism or possible punishments. Thus, the dominance of extrinsic negative motivation is considered as the most destructive motivational complex.

The obtained data were statistically processed using Spearman correlation analysis and one-factor dispersion analysis (ANOVA).

3. RESULTS

We have run a diagnostics of the level of personal anxiety using the Spielberger scale. According to the study about 1/3 of children (37%) demonstrate moderate personal anxiety, the so-called useful anxiety that allows them to mobilize their forces and act confidently. Most of the children (63%) show increased personal anxiety, this group is more inclined to mood, self-doubt, fear and more sensitive to the approval of others.

Further we studied the professional ideas of visually impaired junior schoolchildren in groups with different levels of anxiety, using a questionnaire aimed at studying ideas about the object of activity of E.I. Rogov [19]. While determining the object of activity the students chose preferred profession. The obtained data were statistically processed using Spearman correlation analysis.

Ideas about professional activity on the evaluation factor show high values in both groups, this indicates a positive attitude to professional activity giving it socially desirable characteristics.

According to the potency factor the group with moderate personal anxiety demonstrates quite high results, they present professional activity from the position of autonomy, independence from external influences, these children are ready to rely on their own strength in difficult situations. In the group with increased anxiety, we see average indicators on the potency factor, it indicates a greater dependence on external circumstances, in their ideas professional activity is more difficult to control and presents certain difficulties on the way to the desired result. Indicators of personal anxiety are negatively correlated with the potency factor (r=-0.625 at p<0.001), the higher the personal anxiety, the lower the potency factor.

Both groups show high results by the activity factor, which shows the interest and emotional enthusiasm in the learning of professional activity.

There are high results in both groups by the factor of clarity, this indicates quite bright ideas of children about the profession, the contrast selection of professional activity.

Then, the diagnostics of the aggression level of school- children using the test “Cactus” by M.A. Panfilova was conducted. In the total sample 17% of children refer to the group with expressed aggression and extroversion, they are characterized by activity, assertiveness and conflict, as well as a negative reaction to frustration. In the group with expressed aggression and introversion there are 57% of children, they have a predominance of restraint over activity, but they are ready to defend their autonomy, the reaction to frustration is late but mostly negative. The non-aggressive introverted group include 26% of children, they are modest, shy, reserved and prone to solitude, their reaction to frustration is delayed and often does not have negative character.

The diagnostics of professional ideas through repre- sentation about object of activity was carried out in the same groups.

The obtained data were processed using a single-factor dispersion analysis (ANOVA), where the dependent variable were factors: evaluation, potency, activity, clarity, and as the categories within and between which the comparison is made, were groups with different levels of aggression and intro- version-extroversion. As an a posteriori test, the Sheffe F-criterion was used.

Depending on the group differences were identified in potency (F=8.419 at p<0.001) and activity factors (F=14.673 at p<0.001). Further analysis revealed that in the group of introverted non-aggressive children emotional involvement regarding activity factor was higher (F=0.974 at p<0.005) than in the group of introverted aggressive children demonstrating greater passivity and restraint towards the object of activity. At that extroverted aggressive schoolchildren in comparison with introverted aggressive ones, demonstrate the highest rate of activity (F=1.667 at p<0.001), the object is perceived as impulsive, sociable, there is a large emotional involvement.

In terms of potency factor the group of extroverted aggressive schoolchildren demonstrates high confidence and independence, professional ideas are associated with the ability to achieve the desired and insist on their own, and in this they exceed two other groups: the group of introverted non-aggressive (F=1.407 at p<0.001) and the group of introverted aggressive schoolchildren (F=0.862 at p<0.05), who represent professional activity quite controlled, but more difficult in mastering a certain accepted line of behavior.

In conclusion, we ran a diagnostics of motivation of professional activity in groups with different levels of anxiety using the technique of K. Zamfir (Fig. 1).

Fig. (1). The expressiveness of motivation of junior schoolchildren with different levels of anxiety in scores (mean values).

The figure shows the predominance of extrinsic positive motivation in a group of students with high levels of anxiety, these children are interested in getting an incentive or reward, high values of extrinsic positive motivation are also explained by the fact that a message of success has more stimulating force for highly anxious children [20]. Besides, we see in the same group high values of intrinsic motivation, children with high anxiety put special importance to professional activity. Indicators of personal anxiety positively correlate with extrinsic positive motivation (r=0.557 at p<0.001) and intrinsic positive motivation at the lowest level of significance (r=0.325 at p<0.05). High intrinsic motivation of children is also justified by the interest in education and learning new things, including the knowledge of the object of professional activity, with age this interest is lost and it is necessary to increase this type of motivation.

4. DISCUSSON

In the result of the conducted research it can be said that it is necessary for anxious children to create a sense of confidence and success in the formation of professional ideas of visually impaired junior schoolchildren. To overcome self-doubt, it is essential to teach them to plan activities, to increase meaningful understanding of activity. For less anxious children motivation of activity, the development of a sense of responsibility, the emphasis on the motivational components of the activity will be suitable. To maintain intrinsic motivation, it is necessary to evaluate not so much the result of children's work as the efforts made by them to achieve the goal, as the result may depend on random circumstances or other third-party factors.

CONCLUSION

Ideas about the profession determine the features of the development of professional self-consciousness. In conditions of narrowed social contacts the question of purposeful, systematic formation of professional ideas becomes particularly relevant for visually impaired children. When such children are getting acquainted with the world of work and profession, it is necessary to rely on the principle of individualization and self-determination, taking into account psychological and physical characteristics.

The emotional and volitional components of professional ideas depend on the level of aggression, introversion and extroversion. From this point of view, the combination of extroversion and aggression is favorable. The combination of introversion and aggression is the worst in terms of the emotional component, and introversion and non-aggression are the worst in terms of the volitional component.

The obtained data can be used to create programs for the purposeful formation of professional ideas of visually impaired junior schoolchildren. Moreover, they can be applied in further study of the peculiarities of professional ideas of children with disabilities.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

The study was conducted in accordance with Ethical Code of Russian Psychologists (Russian psychological society).

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animals were used in this research. All human research procedures were followed in accordance with the ethical standards of the committee responsible for human experimentation (institutional and national), and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

The participants and their legal representatives were informed on the aims of the study and gave informed consent prior to data collection.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

The data and materials used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author [A.S] upon reasonable request.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

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