Is the Truth Visible? Study Along the L Scale

Dvora G. Eitan§, *
Department of Criminology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel

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© 2011 Dvora G. Eitan.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Criminology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; Tel/Fax: 011-972-3-6960456; E-mail:


This study addresses the problem of ”faking bad“ (malingering) of abnormal types (non paranoid schizophrenia, paranoid schizophrenia, and psychopathy) when answering the EPQ-R-S personality questionnaire and clinical scales. We tested 180 students under two conditions: ”fake bad“ and ”sincerity“. We demonstrated that although answers to EPQ-R-S may be deliberately and specifically modified, this will be identified in the questionnaire's scales scoring profile and the reaction times. When ”faking“, P scores were elevated and the results of the other dimensions were also ”negatively“ irregular. However their L scores were very low. This low L score should be interpreted as a warning sign of an attempt to present oneself in a negative light.

Keywords: Personality questionnaires, Faking bad, Malingering, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, L scale.