Now Hear This: Auditory Sense may be an Undervalued Component of Effective Modeling and Imagery Interventions in Sport

Jenny O1, *, Barbi Law2, Amanda Rymal3
1 Department of Kinesiology, California State University East Bay, Hayward, USA
2 School of Physical and Health Education, Nipissing University, North Bay, Canada
3 Department of Kinesiology, California State University San Bernardino, San Bernardino, USA

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 708
Abstract HTML Views: 1191
PDF Downloads: 382
Total Views/Downloads: 2281
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 404
Abstract HTML Views: 667
PDF Downloads: 303
Total Views/Downloads: 1374

Creative Commons License
© 2015 Jenny et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Kinesiology, California State University East Bay, Hayward, USA; Tel: 510-885-2907; Fax: 510-885-2423; E-mail:


One of the most important goals of behavioral research in sport psychology and motor learning is to increase our understanding of how to more effectively manipulate structural elements of psychological skills so as to optimize learning and performance. Imagery and modeling research have long-held parallel trajectories; advancements in the understanding of one construct has often informed subsequent research on the other. Preliminary research examining the effect of auditory modeling has indicated that deliberate manipulation of sounds employed during modeled actions can positively impact motor skill learning, performance, and consistency. The imagery research has yet to directly examine the auditory sense, and thus examination of this imagery component would represent a meaningful contribution to our understanding of how to further optimize athletes’ imagery practice. The current paper reviews current knowledge regarding effective imagery and modeling structure, and provides theoretical and evidence-based rationales for the examination of the auditory sense in imagery research.

Keywords: Auditory sense, bio-informational theory, imagery, intervention, modeling, psychological skills, sport.